In contemporary usage, it includes a pictorial representation of data, as in c manufacture, in typesetting and the graphic arts, and in educational and recreational software. Images that are generated by a computer are called computer graphics. Examples are photographsdrawingsline artgraphsdiagramstypographynumberssymbolsgeometric designs, mapsengineering drawingsor other images.

Graphics often combine textillustrationand color. Graphic design may consist of the deliberate selection, creation, or arrangement of typography alone, as in a brochure, flyer, poster, web site, or book without any other element. Clarity or effective communication may be the objective, association with other cultural elements may be sought, or merely, the creation of a distinctive style. Graphics can be functional or artistic.

The latter can be a recorded version, such as a photograph, or interpretation by a scientist to highlight essential features, or an artist, in which case the distinction with imaginary graphics may become blurred. It can also be used for architecture.

The earliest graphics known to anthropologists studying prehistoric periods are cave paintings and markings on boulders, bone, ivory, and antlers, which were created during the Upper Palaeolithic period from 40,—10, B. Many of these were found to record astronomical, seasonal, and chronological details. Some of the earliest graphics and drawings are known to the modern worldfrom almost 6, years ago, are that of engraved stone tablets and ceramic cylinder sealsmarking the beginning of the historical periods and the keeping of records for accounting and inventory purposes.

Records from Egypt predate these and papyrus was used by the Egyptians as a material on which to plan the building of pyramids ; they also used slabs of limestone and wood.

They used graphics to represent their mathematical theories such as the Circle Theorem and the Pythagorean theorem. In art, "graphics" is often used to distinguish work in a monotone and made up of lines, as opposed to painting.

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Drawing generally involves making marks on a surface by applying pressure from a tool or moving a tool across a surface. In which a tool is always used as if there were no tools it would be art.

Graphical drawing is an instrumental guided drawing. Woodblock printingincluding images is first seen in China after paper was invented about A. In the West, the main techniques have been woodcutengraving and etchingbut there are many others. Etching is an intaglio method of printmaking in which the image is incised into the surface of a metal plate using an acid. The acid eats the metal, leaving behind roughened areas, or, if the surface exposed to the acid is very thin, burning a line into the plate.

The use of the process in printmaking is believed to have been invented by Daniel Hopfer c. Line art is a rather non-specific term sometimes used for any image that consists of distinct straight and curved lines placed against a usually plain background, without gradations in shade darkness or hue color to represent two-dimensional or three-dimensional objects.

Line art is usually monochromatic, although lines may be of different colors. An illustration is a visual representation such as a drawingpaintingphotograph or other work of art that stresses subject more than form. The aim of an illustration is to elucidate or decorate a story, poem or piece of textual information such as a newspaper articletraditionally by providing a visual representation of something described in the text.

The editorial cartoonalso known as a political cartoon, is an illustration containing a political or social message. Illustrations can be used to display a wide range of subject matter and serve a variety of functions, such as:.

A graph or chart is an information graphic that represents tabularnumeric data.Computer graphics is an art of drawing pictures, lines, charts, etc using computers with the help of programming.

Computer graphics is made up of number of pixels. Pixel is the smallest graphical picture or unit represented on the computer screen. Basically there are two types of computer graphics namely. Interactive Computer Graphics: Interactive Computer Graphics involves a two way communication between computer and user. Here the observer is given some control over the image by providing him with an input device for example the video game controller of the ping pong game.

This helps him to signal his request to the computer. The computer on receiving signals from the input device can modify the displayed picture appropriately. To the user it appears that the picture is changing instantaneously in response to his commands. He can give a series of commands, each one generating a graphical response from the computer.

types of computer graphics

In this way he maintains a conversation, or dialogue, with the computer. Interactive computer graphics affects our lives in a number of indirect ways. For example, it helps to train the pilots of our airplanes. We can create a flight simulator which may help the pilots to get trained not in a real aircraft but on the grounds at the control of the flight simulator. The flight simulator is a mock up of an aircraft flight deck, containing all the usual controls and surrounded by screens on which we have the projected computer generated views of the terrain visible on take off and landing.

Non Interactive Computer Graphics : In non interactive computer graphics otherwise known as passive computer graphics.

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Image is merely the product of static stored program and will work according to the instructions given in the program linearly. The image is totally under the control of program instructions not under the user. Example: screen savers. Dinesh authors the hugely popular Computer Notes blog. Where he writes how-to guides around Computer fundamentalcomputer software, Computer programming, and web apps. For any type of query or something that you think is missing, please feel free to Contact us.

types of computer graphics

Computer Graphics. Basic of Graphics. What is computer Graphics?

The Two Types of Computer Graphics: Bitmaps and Vector Drawings

Explain Interactive and Non-interactive. About Dinesh Thakur. Related Articles. Explain Lossless Compression and Lossy Compression.

What is Aspect ratio? How the interactive graphics displayed works? Explain What is Dithering? What is CLUT? What is Graphical User Interface? What is Graphics? Different Kinds of Resolutions in the Monitor What is aliasing? What is Grayscale? What is Rendering? What is Bit Block Transfer? What is Bitmapped Display?Last updated: December 25, I f Rembrandt were alive today, would he still paint with oil on canvas Most of us would happily admit to having less talent in both hands than a great painter like this had in a millimeter of his pinkie, but computers can turn us into reasonably competent, everyday artists all the same.

Whether you're an architect or a web designer, a fashion student or a scientist, computer graphics can make your work quicker, easier, and much more effective.

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Let's take a closer look! Photo: Computer graphics, early s style! Arcade games like Space Invaders were how most and something computer geeks first experienced computer graphics.

At that time, even good computer screens could display only about 64, pixels—hence the relatively crudely drawn, pixelated graphics. Photo: Oil paints like these can produce magical results in the right hands—but only in the right hands. Thankfully, those of us without the talent and skill to use them can still produce decent everyday art with computer graphics.

Computer graphics means drawing pictures on a computer screen. What's so good about that? Sketch something on paper —a man or a house—and what you have is a piece of analog information: the thing you draw is a likeness or analogy of something in the real world.

Depending on the materials you use, changing what you draw can be easy or hard: you can erase pencil or charcoal marks easily enough, and you can scrape off oil paints and redo them with no trouble; but altering watercolors or permanent markers is an awful lot more tricky. That's the wonder of art, of course—it captures the fresh dash of creativity—and that's exactly what we love about it.

But where everyday graphics is concerned, the immediacy of art is also a huge drawback. As every sketching child knows too well, if you draw the first part of your picture too big, you'll struggle to squeeze everything else on the page Ever had one of those days where you rip up sheet after sheet of spoiled paper and toss it in the trash? That's why many artists, designers, and architects have fallen in love with computer graphics.

Draw a picture on a computer screen and what you have is a piece of digital information. It probably looks similar to what you'd have drawn on paper—the ghostly idea that was hovering in your mind's eye to begin with—but inside the computer your picture is stored as a series of numbers.

Change the numbers and you can change the picture, in the blink of an eye or even quicker. It's easy to shift your picture around the screen, scale it up or down, rotate it, swap the colors, and transform it in all kinds of other ways. Once it's finished, you can save it, incorporate it into a text document, print it out, upload it to a web page, or email it to a client or work colleague—all because it's digital information.

Find out more about the benefits of digital in our main article about analog and digital. All computer art is digital, but there are two very different ways of drawing digital images on a computer screen, known as raster and vector graphics. So what exactly is the difference?

Stare hard at your computer screen and you'll notice the pictures and words are made up of tiny colored dots or squares called pixels.In computer graphicsgraphics software refers to a program or collection of programs that enable a person to manipulate images or models visually on a computer. Computer graphics can be classified into distinct categories: raster graphics and vector graphicswith further 2D and 3D variants.

Many graphics programs focus exclusively on either vector or raster graphics, but there are a few that operate on both. It is simple to convert from vector graphics to raster graphics, but going the other way is harder.

Some software attempts to do this. In addition to static graphics, there are animation and video editing software. Different types of software are often designed to edit different types of graphics such as video, photos, and vector-based drawings. The exact sources of graphics may vary for different tasks, but most can read and write files. Most graphics programs have the ability to import and export one or more graphics file formatsincluding those formats written for a particular computer graphics program.

The use of a swatch is a palette of active colours that are selected and rearranged by the preference of the user. A swatch may be used in a program or be part of the universal palette on an operating system. It is used to change the colour of a text or image and in video editing. Vector graphics animation can be described as a series of mathematical transformations that are applied in sequence to one or more shapes in a scene. Raster graphics animation works in a similar fashion to film-based animation, where a series of still images produces the illusion of continuous movement.

This software enables the user to create illustrations, designs, logos, 3-dimensional images, animation and pictures. SuperPaint was one of the earliest graphics software applications. Fauve Matisse later Macromedia xRes was a pioneering program of the early s, notably introducing layers in customer software. Currently Adobe Photoshop is one of the most used and best-known graphics programs in the Americas, having created more custom hardware solutions in the early s, but was initially subject to various litigation.

CorelDraw holds a stronger user base in Europe than Adobe. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

types of computer graphics

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: History of computer graphics. Comparison of raster graphics editors Comparison of vector graphics editors List of raster graphics editors Graphic art software Image morphing software Image conversion Raster graphics editor Vector graphics editor. Fractal software.Computer graphics is an art of drawing pictures on computer screens with the help of programming.

It involves computations, creation, and manipulation of data. In other words, we can say that computer graphics is a rendering tool for the generation and manipulation of images.

The primary output device in a graphical system is the video monitor. The electron beam passes through focusing and deflection systems that direct it towards specified positions on the phosphor-coated screen. When the beam hits the screen, the phosphor emits a small spot of light at each position contacted by the electron beam.

There are two ways Random scan and Raster scan by which we can display an object on the screen. In a raster scan system, the electron beam is swept across the screen, one row at a time from top to bottom.

types of computer graphics

As the electron beam moves across each row, the beam intensity is turned on and off to create a pattern of illuminated spots. Picture definition is stored in memory area called the Refresh Buffer or Frame Buffer. This memory area holds the set of intensity values for all the screen points.

Each screen point is referred to as a pixel picture element or pel. At the end of each scan line, the electron beam returns to the left side of the screen to begin displaying the next scan line.

Computer graphics

In this technique, the electron beam is directed only to the part of the screen where the picture is to be drawn rather than scanning from left to right and top to bottom as in raster scan. It is also called vector display, stroke-writing display, or calligraphic display. Picture definition is stored as a set of line-drawing commands in an area of memory referred to as the refresh display file. To display a specified picture, the system cycles through the set of commands in the display file, drawing each component line in turn.

After all the line-drawing commands are processed, the system cycles back to the first line command in the list. Random-scan displays are designed to draw all the component lines of a picture 30 to 60 times each second. Computer Graphics Basics Advertisements. Previous Page. Next Page. Previous Page Print Page.If your computer is having a hard time playing the newest video games or smoothly playing HD video content, it may be time to upgrade your video card.

Many computers include on-board, or built-in, graphics cards. Adding a separate video card will improve the playback of video games and video, but it is important to know which type of graphics card is correct for your computer. Most budget-based PCs will include on-board graphics in lieu of separate graphics cards occupying an expansion slot.

On-board video is usually not powerful enough to play graphics-intensive games or decode high-quality video. If on-board graphics are to be replaced with an add-on graphics card, the on-board graphics will have to be disabled in the computer's BIOS, because you cannot physically remove them.

As ofthe standard in video cards is the PCI Express. Some PCI Express graphics cards have the ability to share the graphics processing with another graphics card. Accelerated graphics port, or AGP, was the standard graphics card type in the early to mids.

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Since laptop computers do not have any available space for an add-on graphics card, some manufacturers have produced external graphics cards to give a boost to laptop graphics. Some of these cards are based on the ExpressSlot, while others are used in-line to an external monitor. The aforementioned cards would not be able to support current versions of Windows, let alone video or graphical games.

Types of Graphic Cards. By : AJ Graham. Share Share on Facebook. Get great tech advice delivered to your inbox.

Applications of Computer Graphics

Keep your family productive, connected, entertained, and safe. Please enter a valid email.Computer graphics is the discipline of generating images with the aid of computers. Today, computer graphics is a core technology in digital photography, film, video games, cell phone and computer displays, and many specialized applications. A great deal of specialized hardware and software has been developed, with the displays of most devices being driven by computer graphics hardware.

It is a vast and recently developed area of computer science. The phrase was coined in by computer graphics researchers Verne Hudson and William Fetter of Boeing. Some topics in computer graphics include user interface designsprite graphicsrenderingray tracinggeometry processingcomputer animationvector graphics3D modelingshadersGPU design, implicit surface visualization, image processingcomputational photographyscientific visualizationcomputational geometry and computer visionamong others.

The overall methodology depends heavily on the underlying sciences of geometryopticsphysicsand perception. Computer graphics is responsible for displaying art and image data effectively and meaningfully to the consumer. It is also used for processing image data received from the physical world.

Computer graphics development has had a significant impact on many types of media and has revolutionized animationmoviesadvertisingvideo gamesand graphic design in general. The term computer graphics has been used in a broad sense to describe "almost everything on computers that is not text or sound". Today, computer graphics is widespread. Such imagery is found in and on television, newspapers, weather reports, and in a variety of medical investigations and surgical procedures.

A well-constructed graph can present complex statistics in a form that is easier to understand and interpret. In the media "such graphs are used to illustrate papers, reports, theses", and other presentation material.

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Many tools have been developed to visualize data. Computer generated imagery can be categorized into several different types: two dimensional 2Dthree dimensional 3Dand animated graphics. As technology has improved, 3D computer graphics have become more common, but 2D computer graphics are still widely used. Computer graphics has emerged as a sub-field of computer science which studies methods for digitally synthesizing and manipulating visual content.

Over the past decade, other specialized fields have been developed like information visualizationand scientific visualization more concerned with "the visualization of three dimensional phenomena architectural, meteorological, medical, biologicaletc.

The precursor sciences to the development of modern computer graphics were the advances in electrical engineeringelectronicsand television that took place during the first half of the twentieth century.