If you buy something through a link on this page, we may earn a small commission. How this works. Manganese is a trace mineral. It is vital for the human body, but people only need it in small amounts. Manganese contributes to many bodily functions, including the metabolism of amino acids, cholesterolglucose, and carbohydrates.

It also plays a role in bone formation, blood clotting, and reducing inflammation. The human body cannot produce manganese, but it can store it in the liver, pancreas, bones, kidneys, and brain. A person usually obtains manganese from their diet. In this article, learn more about how manganese functions in the body, as well as where to find it. Manganese helps form an antioxidant enzyme called superoxide dismutase SOD. Antioxidants shield the body from free radicals, which are molecules that destroy or damage cells in the body.

manganese oxide uses

The authors of a study found that SOD helps break down one of the more dangerous free radicals, called superoxide, into smaller components that are not harmful. In laboratory and animal models, this process could reduce inflammation related to lung pleurisyinflammatory bowel disease, and psoriasis.

More research is necessary to prove the benefits of these antioxidants in the human body, however. Manganese may help promote strong, dense bones when combined with other nutrients, such as calcium and vitamin D. Although some earlier studies have suggested that manganese could make bones denser, more recent research has noted that calcium and vitamin D are the most significant promoters of good bone health.

Manganese(II) oxide

For people with diabetesmanganese may help lower blood sugar levels. The authors of a study that took place in South Korea found that people with diabetes had lower levels of manganese in their bodies.

What is not clear, however, is whether this is a causal factor or a result of diabetes. Another studythis time in mice, indicated that manganese helps the pancreas create insulin.Manganese II oxide is an inorganic compound with chemical formula MnO.

The compound is produced on a large scale as a component of fertilizers and food additives. Like many monoxides, MnO adopts the rock salt structurewhere cations and anions are both octahedrally coordinated.

Below K MnO is antiferromagnetic. Manganese II oxide undergoes the chemical reactions typical of an ionic oxide. Upon treatment with acids, it converts to the corresponding manganese II salt and water. MnO occurs in nature as the rare mineral manganosite. Commercially it is prepared by reduction of MnO 2 with hydrogencarbon monoxide or methanee. MnO can also be prepared by decarbonation of the carbonate: [6]. This calcining process is conducted anaerobically, lest Mn 2 O 3 form.

An alternative route, mostly for demonstration purposes, is the oxalate method, which also applicable to the synthesis of ferrous oxide and stannous oxide. Together with manganese sulfate, MnO is a component of fertilizers and food additives. Many thousands of tons are consumed annually for this purpose. Other uses include: a catalyst in the manufacture of allyl alcoholceramics, paints, colored glass, bleaching tallow and textile printing.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Manganous oxide Manganosite manganese monoxide Hypomanganous oxide oxomanganese. CAS Number.

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PubChem CID. Chemical formula. Solubility in water. Refractive index n D. Crystal structure. Space group. Coordination geometry. Std molar entropy S o Other anions.

Other cations. Related manganese oxides. Chemical Principles 6th Ed. Houghton Mifflin Company.

manganese oxide uses

Chemistry of the Elements 2nd ed. Shull, W. Strauser, and E. Wollan, Phys. Manganese compounds. MnH CO 5. Mn 2 CO Oxides are sorted by oxidation state.Manganese IV oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula MnO 2. This blackish or brown solid occurs naturally as the mineral pyrolusitewhich is the main ore of manganese and a component of manganese nodules.

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The principal use for MnO 2 is for dry-cell batteriessuch as the alkaline battery and the zinc-carbon battery.

It is used as a reagent in organic synthesisfor example, for the oxidation of allylic alcohols. Several polymorphs of MnO 2 are claimed, as well as a hydrated form. The complicated solid-state chemistry of this material is relevant to the lore of "freshly prepared" MnO 2 in organic synthesis. Naturally occurring manganese dioxide contains impurities and a considerable amount of manganese III oxide.

Production of batteries and ferrite two of the primary uses of manganese dioxide requires high purity manganese dioxide. Batteries require "electrolytic manganese dioxide" while ferrites require "chemical manganese dioxide". One method starts with natural manganese dioxide and converts it using dinitrogen tetroxide and water to a manganese II nitrate solution.

Evaporation of the water leaves the crystalline nitrate salt. In another process manganese dioxide is carbothermically reduced to manganese II oxide which is dissolved in sulfuric acid. The filtered solution is treated with ammonium carbonate to precipitate MnCO 3. The carbonate is calcined in air to give a mixture of manganese II and manganese IV oxides. To complete the process, a suspension of this material in sulfuric acid is treated with sodium chlorate.

A third process involves manganese heptoxide and manganese monoxide. The two reagents combine with a ratio to form manganese dioxide:. Lastly, the action of potassium permanganate over manganese sulfate crystals produces the desired oxide.

Electrolytic manganese dioxide EMD is used in zinc—carbon batteries together with zinc chloride and ammonium chloride. For these applications, purity is extremely important.

EMD is produced in a similar fashion as electrolytic tough pitch ETP copper : The manganese dioxide is dissolved in sulfuric acid sometimes mixed with manganese sulfate and subjected to a current between two electrodes. The MnO 2 dissolves, enters solution as the sulfate, and is deposited on the anode. The important reactions of MnO 2 are associated with its redox, both oxidation and reduction. MnO 2 is the principal precursor to ferromanganese and related alloys, which are widely used in the steel industry.

The conversions involve carbothermal reduction using coke : [ citation needed ]. The key reactions of MnO 2 in batteries is the one-electron reduction:. MnO 2 catalyses several reactions that form O 2. In a classical laboratory demonstration, heating a mixture of potassium chlorate and manganese dioxide produces oxygen gas. Manganese dioxide also catalyses the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to oxygen and water :.

Higher temperatures give MnO. Hot concentrated sulfuric acid reduces the MnO 2 to manganese II sulfate : [4]. The reaction of hydrogen chloride with MnO 2 was used by Carl Wilhelm Scheele in the original isolation of chlorine gas in As a source of hydrogen chloride, Scheele treated sodium chloride with concentrated sulfuric acid.

This reaction is also a convenient way to remove the manganese dioxide precipitate from the ground glass joints after running a reaction i. Potassium manganate is the precursor to potassium permanganatea common oxidant.Manganese is used in many industrial metallurgical processes. It is of particular importance in the creation of alloys of steel and aluminumbut the uses of manganese extend to other industrial areas outside of metallurgy.

Manganese is important in nutrition, as well. The human body does not require much of this element, but several biological uses of manganese are critical to the proper functioning of the body, and it is often included in small doses in mineral supplements. Manganese can be used in several different alloying processes to improve the durability of steel. The addition of manganese to steel can also improve the overall strength and workability of the material.

Magnesium oxide

Hadfield Steel is one example of a mixture of steel and manganese, and is known for both these properties. Other metals can be alloyed with manganese as well. Alloys of aluminum and manganese are quite common. The aluminum cans familiar to most beverage consumers are produced with just such an alloy. Industrial chemistry employs manganese, as well. Common uses of manganese in this field revolve around its usefulness as a pigment. Pigments with earth tones often contain manganese. It can be used to produce similar shades when added to bricks.

Disposable alkaline batteries frequently use manganese. The manganese is the cathode in these batteries. Other minerals can be used for this purpose, but the cost and chemical properties of manganese make it a very common choice. There are a number of biological and biochemical uses of manganese. The vast majority of organisms employ manganese in only trace amounts in biological processes. The human body is no exception to this rule. Manganese seems to be particularly important for the proper functioning of enzymes.

These enzymes have a variety of different functions. Some aid in repairing damage to the body. Others are antioxidants.

manganese oxide uses

Additional enzymes make use of manganese to aid in the development of strong and healthy bones. Given the number of uses of manganese within the human body, it is often included in mineral supplements. Small supplemental doses of manganese are either beneficial or harmless.Manganese Mnchemical elementone of the silvery white, hard, brittle metals of Group 7 VIIb of the periodic table. It was recognized as an element in by the Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele while working with the mineral pyrolusite and was isolated the same year by his associate, Johan Gottlieb Gahn.

Although it is rarely used in pure form, manganese is essential to steelmaking. It occurs in a number of substantial deposits, of which the most important ores which are mainly oxides consist primarily of manganese dioxide MnO 2 in the form of pyrolusiteromanechiteand wad.

Manganese is essential to plant growth and is involved in the assimilation of nitrates in green plants and algae.

It is an essential trace element in higher animals, in which it participates in the action of many enzymes. Lack of manganese causes testicular atrophy.

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An excess of this element in plants and animals is toxic. Large areas of the ocean floor are covered with manganese nodules, also called polymetallic nodules, concretions of manganese with some iron, silicon, and aluminum.

The amount of manganese in the nodules is estimated to be much more than that in land reserves. Most of the manganese produced is used in the form of ferromanganese and silicomanganese alloys for iron and steel manufacture. Manganese ores containing iron oxides are first reduced in blast furnaces or electric furnaces with carbon to yield ferromanganese, which in turn is used in steelmaking. Adding manganese, which has a greater affinity for sulfur than does iron, converts the low-melting iron sulfide in steel to high-melting manganese sulfide.

Produced without manganese, steel breaks up when hot-rolled or forged. Steels generally contain less than 1 percent manganese. Manganese steel is used for very rugged service; containing 11—14 percent manganese, it provides a hard, wear-resistant, and self-renewing surface over a tough unbreakable core. Pure manganese produced electrolytically is used mostly in the preparation of nonferrous alloys of copperaluminummagnesiumand nickel and in the production of high-purity chemicals.

Practically all commercial alloys of aluminum and magnesium contain manganese to improve corrosion resistance and mechanical properties. Aluminum cans contain about 1. For detailed information on the extraction, refining, and applications of manganese, see manganese processing. All natural manganese is the stable isotope manganese It exists in four allotropic modifications; the complex cubic structure of the so-called alpha phase is the form stable at ordinary temperatures.

Manganese somewhat resembles iron in general chemical activity. The metal oxidizes superficially in air and rusts in moist air. Manganese is quite electropositive, dissolving very readily in dilute nonoxidizing acids.

Although relatively unreactive toward nonmetals at room temperature, it reacts with many at elevated temperatures.

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Manganese also combines directly with boroncarbonsulfursiliconor phosphorus but not with hydrogen. The principal industrial compounds of manganese include several oxides. Manganese II oxide, or manganese monoxide MnOis used as a starting material for the production of manganous salts, as an additive in fertilizersand as a reagent in textile printing.

It occurs in nature as the green mineral manganosite. It also can be prepared commercially by heating manganese carbonate in the absence of air or by passing hydrogen or carbon monoxide over manganese dioxide. It is also widely used as a chemical oxidant in organic synthesis. Manganese dioxide is used as the cathode material in dry-cell batteries.Medically reviewed by Drugs. Magnesium is a naturally occurring mineral. Magnesium is important for many systems in the body especially the muscles and nerves.

Magnesium oxide is also used as an antacid to treat indigestionor as a laxative to relieve occasional constipation.

What Are the Different Uses of Manganese?

Before you take magnesium oxide, tell your doctor about all your medical conditions or allergiesand all the medicines you are using. Also make sure your doctor knows if you are pregnant or breast-feeding. In some cases, you may not be able to take magnesium oxide, or you may need a dose adjustment or special precautions. Ask a doctor or pharmacist if it is safe for you to use magnesium oxide if you have other medical conditions, especially:.

It is not known whether magnesium oxide will harm an unborn baby. Ask a doctor before using this medicine if you are pregnant. It is not known whether magnesium oxide passes into breast milk or if it could affect a nursing baby.

manganese oxide uses

Ask a doctor before using this medicine if you are breast-feeding. Use exactly as directed on the label, or as prescribed by your doctor. Do not use in larger or smaller amounts or for longer than recommended.

Call your doctor if your symptoms do not improve after 7 days of treatment, or if symptoms get worse. Since magnesium oxide is sometimes used when needed, you may not be on a dosing schedule. If you are on a schedule, take the missed dose as soon as you remember.

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Skip the missed dose if it is almost time for your next scheduled dose. Do not take extra medicine to make up the missed dose. Overdose symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, weakness, breathing problems, slow reflexes, weak pulse, extreme drowsiness, and feeling dizzy or light-headed.

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Magnesium oxide can make it harder for your body to absorb other medicines you take by mouth. Avoid taking other medicines within 2 hours before or 2 hours after you take magnesium oxide. You may need to wait 4 hours to take your other medicines after taking magnesium oxide. Ask your doctor how to best schedule your medications. Get emergency medical help if you have signs of an allergic reaction : hives ; difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.City enters this season as the favourite to climb back to the top of the league.

After surrendering 39 goals last season, Man City made it a top priority to address the backend this off-season, and they did exactly that with the acquisitions of Ederson Moraes in goal and defenders Kyle Walker and Danilo. Chelsea lost only five games last season in a 30-win campaign, winning the league title with a 30-5-3 record. Manchester United scored only 54 goals last season, letting an excellent defensive season go to waste with a sixth-place finish.

The defence should once again be elite this year, and the acquisition of Belgian sniper Romelu Lukaku is likely to boost production on offence.

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Tom Brady hoists the Lombardi Trophy after the Patriots beat the Falcons 34-28 in Super Bowl LI. But do our panel think they can hold off the challenge of the likes of Green Bay, Seattle, Pittsburgh, Dallas and Atlanta or are there some bigger priced teams in with a shout.

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